Field Recording: Animals. Pigs

Pointing a Microphone at the Pigs

My trip back to Germany this year was packed with true recording excitement! Since I am a big fan of animal vocalization and could use a fresh set of sounds for an upcoming game project the timing seemed perfect to hit the field. Animal vocalization can be a great resource and foundation for creating emotional sound effects. They can be used for expressive textures/layers as they have good organic and tonal base. If being used wisely they can add a fair amount to the  overall quality for a specific design setting. Each animal sound represents a unique and different tonal quality, as well as the content of dynamic diversity that can be produced is wide! Processed or unprocessed. Simply to just make use of them as to establish a rhythm or inspiration for later removal (like a placeholder) can help speed up decision making in the design process.

The widely used foundation where animal sound sources melt into the sound design process are for instance creature effects. An overly used animal source are pigs, lions (wildcats) bears, dogs, everything with grunts, growls, snarls, barks sniffs, breaths etc. Some may disagree and find it boring as it has been overly used – which I partly agree with. But they are emotional and powerful and if they suit the context of whats needed within a current setting… so why not simply use them? One can always approach the process differently in terms of modern modulation dsp (pitch), audio resolution (196khz), kyma, microphone selection or positioning and so on. I think that there are many ways to still come up with interesting modification techniques that affect your sounds. However, I’ve seen/heard some very good human performances on creatures (including my self). It does greatly relay on motif and context of the sound subject and the direction of sound aesthetic required. It’s like composing a musical score, finding its core instrumentation to harmonically blend together a range of instruments. Ideally, each project should have a unique approach to the overall design decisions. Although, I agree that in some cases this can be time consuming and possibly require a financial backup.

In the movie “I am Legend”, sound supervisor Skip Leyvsy hired a Hollywood based voice artists, who apart from being a composer also performs creature vocalization. In this case, the movie’s enemies were once real human characters transforming into zombies. Hiring a specialist and keeping true human aesthetics alive  turned out to be a great way to go. However, there are many ways of accomplishing the right effect, such as to combine animal layers with that of a humans.

Here is a re-design I did after I’ve seen the trailer of the new novel Nocturnal by Scott Sigler on Vimeo. Lots of pigs and human recordings used in there to shape the idea of the various creatures in his world. Check it out!

Animal sessions ain’t easy! Would you agree? I think that every recordists would compliment on it (or fisherman). It can be really hard and even disappointing to get the very best results out of such a field trip. Not only does a good recording depend on the species itself, but also: climate, season, time of the day or environmental influences that may determine the outcome of your data.

Before hitting the field it’s advised to look up sound related references ahead  of time (i.e, to get a better idea of what to target and to expect! :) Low-fi audio is enough to get the picture! Also research on species can help to find out the animal’s most active day circles, eating habits or routines, combined with studying common body language and other unique behaviors. On the long run, a shotgun mic can get heavy, so be sure to save your muscle energy for the very right moment. You can chat up with institutions and ask for specifics on animals and their prime moments. Usually, they are comfortable to share! One time I was in need of wolf howls and a nice lady at Schorfheide Wild Park in Brandenburg shared some good insight with me when it’s best to visit.

I have tried to record at Zoos, parks and commercial wildlife territories, on boats (whale watching) and in the wild. Certainly, material can always be filtered or processed and make up for cool sounds, often times non-related to your initial expectation which get refereed as: Accidents! Although, you can’t relay on them all the time. Best is to stick with what you aimed for. Sounds that got stuck in your head.

However, I don’t recommend city zoos or anything that its located in a city polluted with a constant low-rumble, airplane pass-bys or loud screaming school classes. Although, the lows you can always cut depending on the animal source frequency range. You can also try to go early at the last hour of their opening times. A good timing is around mid-week in the winter, when local birds (the ones stealing the food of the exhibits) or insects become less audible overall. In general, bird houses or birds can be quite okay. However, I think by now, I could actually assemble a whole tourist-kids crowd library from collected content over the years ;)

My general experience with zoo visits around the world have been mixed. Wouldn’t it be funny to claim, that I found zoo crowds in Europe  to be much quieter compared to … the US?! Anyways… Lets blame it on the animals :)

This bison below, I recorded at a great Wildlife Park in Poing a small town close to Munich. They have extremely quiet terrains with an interesting and wide range of wild and native European animals. If park keeper tend to treat their animals respectfully (lots of open space with hygienic overall treatment) their animals will most likely perform great, simply by nature law. Especially the pairing seasons can be quite exciting. If you don’t find time to go out into the field to capture unique source material, sound libraries can do the job as well. I highly recommend the Creatures Library from the team over at BOOM with their vast collection of inspiring material based off all kinds of vocalization. The packages includes a fairly wide range of usable production asset.

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Field Recording: Airplane (Part 1)

A Small Jet

On my last trip to Germany, I still remembered this street on the way to a friends home, which runs parallel along a huge landing site, close to the Munich International Airport, which operates national and international airfare. I associate this area with an interesting memory!  Once in while when I drove down this road in a car, there is a special moment whenever an airplane happens to be right above me – at the right timing. Because the street is fairly close to the landing site and right within the airplanes ‘s flightpath it can get as close as 15 meters from the ground. Its a frightening sound when being situated so close to the source, especially when sitting in the car, not expecting it to happen! A large and tight mid-frequency roar combined with  a powerful engine whine – passing by your head at its peak! Long have I wanted to stack up my library with fresh airplane sounds, but got caught up with life in the meantime (moving to America) and never really had the chance to chase it. Until finally the end of 2010 during Christmas holidays when I visited my family in Munich. Eventually I packed up my recording gear and drove out to the airport, all excited to hit REC button. My goal was to capture the various airplanes activities in a wide set of situations. Approach, overhead, landing, take-offs, shot direct, mid, side, and different positioning etc. Everything I could think of including funny and unexpected random situations.

And this is how near I could position myself on the take-off and landing site of the airport.

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Field Recording: First-Person-Shooter Footsteps


Player footstep sounds in the FPS genre are crucial, because they can contribute a meaningful purpose to the game’s audio vision!  They can be a vital aspect to tell a story and push the overall game experience extensively, as well as  help the player/listener to make certain game play decisions during gaming. They can provide disclosure to the listener, revealing either weight, speed, surface material or space the player character happens to be in or walks on. In a multiplayer game play scenario they’re invaluable. They can warn the player when somebody approaches or moves about in distant. Ultimately, which can help the listener to look for cover and estimate its range. However, not only do they provide essential information to the listener, but also arise tricky questions about their production and technical implementation process  -  leaving it up to the audio artists to decide on how they need to be integrated, and esthetically aligned to the nature of the games needs.

Inside the game audio community there have been current discussions on how to implement player footsteps effectively. Many different opinions from audio professionals exist! My good friend and technical sound designer, Damian Kastbauer has had a recent conversation on this topic over at the Game Audio Podcast, debating with  special quests: Julian Kwasneski, David Steinwedel and Kenneth Young who shared their personal views on this. Make sure to check it out if you get a chance! On a personal note, I think that the production and integration of player character footsteps does vastly depend on the game’s nature, beneath genre, design, relevance and style of the game. There is no common rule of whats right or wrong – if they sound good, inside the game, then that’s the way to go :-)  It  may take hours of experimentation, good team communication and tweaks of your middleware knobs, until you reach satisfaction.


Sound transparency = the dynamic composition of sound effects, music and voice overs, all blended nicely together within the game’s soundtrack, serves to keep the listening experience pleasant and interesting to the auditor. This also may relate to casual and portable games, despite the fact that audio of course is lower in its  high-fidelity, and the number of streamed audio files minimal. The more dynamic and balanced a mix is put together, the more likely the listener gets sucked up into the immersive listening experience, to fully relish the game play adventures.

But how does this related to the implementation of footsteps? Well for instance, in some occasions, I would want player footsteps to stand out on purpose – emphasizing on a particular space or location that player is in at a given time. Such as in a tunnel, or a narrow basement.  Where  room acoustics can be a  good servant to  paint the tonal sonic picture of the dimension of a room. It is here where footsteps could become prioritized and gain slightly in volume, leaving the remaining sounds  low on the totem pole (often archived through bus ducking). Now in contrast, in a battle scenario for example, the games activities (sounds played at once) will be elevated (weapons, explosions, intense VO) and footsteps by default become less notable and relevant to the player. Because the gamer rather wants to pay attention to the sound of close-by bullet impacts or essential voices  overs of team-mates, in order to trace their position (multiplayer).  Actually, very similar to a real-world situation! Imagine, if you were walking on the street in the middle of the night on a semi-busy street, listening to the echo of your footsteps bouncing off close-by walls. A transporter truck approaches and passes you by… if you’re still moving you wouldn’t hear a single step – only the distinct sound of the truck going by! Right?!

Fortunately, with today’s innovative and advanced audio middleware applications, such as Wwise, make it  easy to set up real-time parameters to control the dynamic of an adaptive in-game mixing case. Basically, we’re able to control volume curves, fx and multiple EQ-filter changes adaptively. This enables us to adjust artistic modifications based on the entire game play situation. It relates to ambient, music and single sound effect events! The control schemes are endless, and creativity and a little bit of technical mind-bending (scripting) around on the game engine is key to highly-immersive results. However, there are times when we, as sound designers are limited to on-hand streaming memory – as we constantly have to battle to draw back on sound events. Even the ones we fell in love with. :-(

On the note implementation, there is a great article at DesigningSound.Org with Jeff Wesevich and Justin Drust talking about their  Dynamic Wind System which has been applied in Ghost Recon: Warfighter 2. It utilizes visual parameters to control the increase/decrease and intensity level of wind layers to build up tension and draw away from it, based on altitude and location of the player character. Also make sure to check out Damian’s blog and interesting articles on DesigningSound.Org where he shares many informative stories about the technical aspects of sound design.


As with everything, to plan ahead and to write down notes on: ‘what needs to be recored’, will help a lot in order to stay organized throughout production. I even used normal paper with a analog pen! :-) I’ve had several instances where the iPhone made terrible artifacts into the recordings, in search for a near-by Wi-Fi connection. :-( Sometime we just forget to switch-off our phones to Fligh-Mode. Mainly during the day or on my way home I tried to take notes on locations that I’ve passed by, putting down comments on where and what possibly could be recorded there.

It takes good understanding of your environmental surroundings, by that I mean, whether if you life in a big city or a small town, it is good to know your locations to plan for a recording at some point. Right now I life in Gaineville, Florida, a small college town and it sometimes seems difficult to get away from traffic noise to get a clear shot when recording. Remote foley can be a true hustle and requires TONS of time, as well as initial trail and error attempts. It took me a while to really get what I was hearing in my head and there is always the unexpected. Like sick cats or dogs barking, crickets or drunk teenagers etc.! Anyway, a lot of times I found myself headed out for recordings in the middle of the night, when traffic noise was low. It was pretty much a hit-and-run type scenario, with the goal to avoid attracting the police – called up by the local neighbor- watch, informing them that they saw a man holding a big ‘gun’. Oh boy, I twice had the honor to meet them face to face. Plus I have an European accent – it certainly can get complicated ;-) Anyway, I could capture two or even four different surfaces per night performing on about two different locations.

Production – Fun Part?

Now – lets plunge a little into the fun part and examine the recording techniques I applied for a first person shooter project I worked on this year. As we’ve learned in school, all footsteps assets (or in general foley props) get recorded dry, within either a foley stage, performed by a foley artist OR in this very case – via remote foley or worldizing! There are good and bad things going about this recording method. I tell you right away, its time consuming, and can be a lot of fun! Here are some of the pros and cons:


- It gives an overall higher sense of natural rhythm
- It adds a unique and exclusive sound texture to the recordings
- Physical work out to get out of the studio (-:


- Continuity is vital (same shoes and intensity level)

- demands extra hours
- To find suitable locations and surfaces
- Very time consuming: Editing and recording!

Here is a video of how I recorded most of the player footsteps – holding a mic in my hand and pointing it towards my feet. Common requirements for variation were: walk, run, shuffel, turn, stop, jump and land-  YES all performed by me! For when the player jumps down a higher object or platform, landing sounds were split up into: soft, medium and hard. So did the performance!

Testing & Tweaking

After each completed recording session, the next step was: editing, mastering and integration. We’ve build a footsteps test-map in the UnrealEditor, defining each different surfaces that the player character would encounter to walk on in a specific level. This gave us good feedback time of how they sounded to tell us what needed to be changed. Usually, we would set up random containers (in Wwise), a setting for each of the variations, to randomly play them back to us – focusing on panning, volume & pitch-randomization.  I tossed about 10-15 separated footstep samples into each surface defined and named container and successively minimized them down to 4-5, based on performance and overall feel they communicated. I got rid of all unpleasant sounding samples and shaped them so they would work together as set. Here is a video capture of a test map representing different material surfaces that the player performs on.

And here is a video of testing water footsteps in on of the sewer areas. Actually, I recorded these towards the end of the Florida summer period at my apartments swimming pool, when pool maintenance let water out. Phew! I am glad I didn’t slip ending up with a water-soaked microphones. All went well, though! :-)

In the end, it was a great learning experience to apply this recording technique. Even though, it takes up a lot of time and patience (which most of us may not have), I feel that the final quality on when the character moves around in the maps, make in all worth while. Its funny! I sometimes even recognize the sound and recording location, which puts a smile on my face! :-)



Field Recording: Weapon Test Recording


On my last project I needed original gun recordings aimed to be used for sound layers for a mixture of Sci-Fi and realistic weapons. Good weapon recordings can act great for all kind of  ‘character supporters’. They can serve to increase beefiness (impact & size) or to reveal information on space. Of course this does depend on the general weapon mechanics and overall requirements.

As always – I tried to work from the very early gun concepts which, at the time, appeared to be very Sci-Fi-y, but also had typical mechanical gun parts associated to it. Because each of the eight total weapons, which we needed sounds for, had an alternative fire: Sci-Fi faster fire rounds and we immediately knew we would have to experiment in order to come up with a unique sound texture for each of them!

Initially, hand in hand with the visual effect department we went over the possibilities for the different weapon types and how they might ‘feel’ & interact when being used by us and the gamer. Throughout the entire development and production phase, we went through constant durations – audio as well as Vfx. Many times the art director changed the art and design concepts completely. Since the audio department remains to typically be the very last craft to be concerned about, on occasion, we did miss valuable information on changes that happen to come up in meetings, which had relevance to us and our decisions.

However, until then, I never really had the chance to do a proper gun recording and it felt to be a perfect timing to set one up. :-) Yeah!!! In Germany this wouldn’t be possible with ease – or at least it would be very very bulky! Germans love bureaucracy! And as a result, the law likes to ‘make’ things extra difficult. On the other hand, in America its really easy – and a super -duper fun experience!! To shoot a gun is like whiskey on the rocks. ;-) Stephen, my sound college, helped me out with managing range location, ammo and to find caliber types which suited our sound concepts.

During production we soon discovered that we would require every possible gun that we could get our hands on, due to the ever changing nature of the project. The more the better! It turns out that guns would change into a more realistic and mechanical look/feel! Either way, we concentrated on the recording and collection of fresh material which also should include alternative perspectives for NPC and PC distant fire. Stephen and I went out several times to test out location-space and microphone setups. Here is short video of a test sessions on the range in Gainesville, Florida.

Please note that the guns shown in the video may differ from it original sound you’re hearing. At the time I couldn’t quite keep track of look and sound to sync them up perfectly – sorry :-) This should serve for demonstration purposes only and should give you pretty decent idea of how it all went down!

A Small Town in Florida called ‘Foley’


Sometime on my to a field trip in Florida to record some swamp ambient I pass by this little town with the name “Foley”. Now, isn’t that funny? You can check its location right here. I am sure that Jack Foley has got nothing to do with it! ;-) I wonder if people that life there share a small interest in the art of foley, or do actually know how the name of their town relates to the field of audio?!